India’s irrigated agriculture sector has been basic to India’s economic development and poverty alleviation. One of India’s major achievements is its rapid expansion of irrigation and drainage infrastructure. However, the major emphasis on development has been achieved at a cost. The importance put on new construction has diverted attention away from the need to ensure the quality, productivity, and sustainability of the services. Further, a governmental subsidy based approach has been used and this has resulted in irrigation and drainage services which, while enabling significantly higher productivity than from non-irrigated lands, are well below their potential. ‘The Irrigation Sector’ discusses directions for future growth, the framework for reform, and the reform agenda.